Kaiser Daily HIV/AIDS Report Highlights Recently Published Studies
The following summarizes recently published studies.
- "Screening HIV-Infected Individuals for Anal Cancer Precursor Lesions: A Systematic Review," Clinical Infectious Diseases: Elizabeth Chiao of Baylor College of Medicine and colleagues reviewed literature regarding the use of anal Pap tests on HIV-positive patients undergoing highly active antiretroviral therapy. According to researchers, HIV-positive people have a higher risk of contracting human papillomavirus-related squamous cell cancer of the anus. Researchers suggested that screening HIV-positive people for squamous cell cancer of the anus and HPV-related anal dysplasia might reduce the risk of illness and death (Chiao et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, 7/15).
- "Case Management Is Associated With Improved Antiretroviral Adherence and CD4+ Cell Counts in Homeless and Marginally Housed Individuals With HIV Infection," Clinical Infectious Diseases: Margot Kushel of the University of California-San Francisco's Division of General Internal Medicine and colleagues examined whether case management in HIV-positive adults in San Francisco who are either homeless or "marginally housed" is associated with reduced acute medical care and improved health. The researchers categorized case management use as "none" or "rare" when it was used 25% of the time by an individual during the study, "moderate" if it was used 25% to 75% of the time and "consistent" when it was used 75% of the time or more. The study finds that case management is not associated with increased primary care use, emergency care or hospitalization. In addition, researchers found that moderate and consistent use of case management is associated with improved antiretroviral drug adherence and 50% or greater improvements in CD4+ T cell counts. According to researchers, case management might improve adherence to antiretroviral therapy by HIV-positive homeless and marginally housed people (Kushel et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, 6/18).
- "Clinical Outcomes Improve With Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy in Vertically HIV Type-1-Infected Children," Clinical Infectious Diseases: Salvador Resino of the Laboratorio de Inmuno-Biologia Molecular and colleagues examined the records of 427 children who were born HIV-positive in Madrid, Spain, and were treated during one of five time periods: between 1980 and 1989, when antiretroviral drugs were not administered; between 1990 and 1993, when antiretroviral monotherapy was given; between 1994 and 1993, when combination therapy was given; between 1997 and 1998, when less than 50% of children were receiving HAART; and between 1998 and 2003, when more than 60% of children were receiving HAART. The researchers concluded that HAART leads to a lower number of adverse outcomes -- including hospital admissions, AIDS diagnoses and death -- than other treatments among children in Madrid who were born HIV-positive (Resino et al., Clinical Infectious Diseases, 6/9).
- "A Comparison of HIV Positive and Negative Pregnant Women at a Public Sector Hospital in South Africa," Journal of Clinical Nursing: Candice Bodkin of the University of Witwatersrand and colleagues compared 212 HIV-positive pregnant women with 101 HIV-negative pregnant women over a 15-month period at Johannesburg Hospital, United Press International reports (United Press International, 6/19). The study finds that pregnant women who are HIV-positive are more likely to develop pregnancy-induced hypertension, syphilis infection and urinary tract infection than HIV-negative pregnant women. Researchers also found that HIV-positive pregnant women weigh about 6% less than HIV-negative women, and their infants are more likely to be born prematurely and have a low birthweight (Bodkin et al., Journal of Clinical Nursing, June 2006).