Studies Examine Cancer Screening Interventions, Mental Health, Telemedicine, Health Professionals, BiDil
- "Telephone Outreach to Increase Colorectal Cancer Screening in an Urban Minority Population," American Journal of Public Health: The study compared the effectiveness of a telephone outreach program and a direct mail campaign in improving rates of colorectal cancer screening among residents of a primarily black population. From 2000 through 2003, researchers followed 456 participants in the New York City area who had not received a recent screening and gave a control group mailed print materials, while the intervention group received tailored telephone outreach. According to the study, members of the intervention group were 4.4 times more likely to receive screening than control group members (Basch et al., AJPH, December 2006).
- "The Mental Health of Black Caribbean Immigrants: Results from the National Survey of American Life," AJPH: The study examined the prevalence of psychiatric disorders among U.S.-born blacks compared with black Caribbean immigrants using data from the National Survey of American Life. Researchers found that black men born in the Caribbean but now living in the U.S. had a higher risk of psychiatric disorders in the last 12 months compared with U.S.-born black men. Black women born in the Caribbean who now live in the U.S. had lower 12-month and lifetime risk of such disorders than U.S.-born black women. According to the study, "Increased exposure to minority status in the United States was associated with higher risks for psychiatric disorders among black Caribbean immigrants, which possibly reflects increased societal stress and downward social mobility associated with being black in America" (Williams et al., AJPH, January 2007).
- "Ethnic Disparities in Clinical Severity and Services for Alcohol Problems: Results from the National Alcohol Survey," Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research: The study examined rates and factors among Hispanics, blacks and whites who meet certain criteria for alcohol abuse or dependence and their use of alcohol services. Analysis of the most recent National Alcohol Surveys found that Hispanics and blacks with higher-severity alcohol problems utilize services at lower rates than whites with similar severity, in part -- particularly for Hispanics -- because of financial and language barriers in obtaining care (Schmidt et al., Alcoholism: Clinical & Experimental Research, January 2007).
- "Diagnostic Reliability of Telepsychiatry in American Indian Veterans," American Journal of Psychiatry: The study examined the reliability of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-III-R in the administration of psychiatric assessments through videoconferencing compared to face-to-face assessment within a rural American Indian community. Researchers concluded that there was no significant difference in assessing disorders via videoconferencing or face-to- face interactions, except in cases of past-year substance dependence and abuse-dependence combined (Shore et al., American Journal of Psychiatry, January 2007).
- "Impact of Race on the Professional Lives of Physicians of African Descent," Annals of Internal Medicine: The study examined whether physicians of African descent experience race issues in the workplace in the New England states of the U.S. Researchers concluded, "The issue of race remains a pervasive influence in the work lives of physicians of African descent. Without sufficient attention to the specific ways in which race shapes physicians' work experiences, health care organizations are unlikely to create environments that successfully foster and sustain a diverse physician workforce" (Nunez-Smith et al., Annals of Internal Medicine, January 2007).
- "BiDil for Heart Failure in Black Patients: The U.S. Food and Drug Administration Perspective," Annals of Internal Medicine: The study examined FDA's approval of BiDil for treating heart failure in black patients and suggestions that data used to approve the drug were insufficient and did not distinguish treatment effects based on race. The study concluded that the approval "was a scientifically reasonable, data-based decision, one that provided a major benefit in a group that is particularly burdened by congestive heart failure" and the "evidence of benefit in black patients is very strong" (Temple/Stockbridge, Annals of Internal Medicine, January 2007).