California Governor Jerry Brown has signed into law a bill that would require Medi-Cal, the state’s insurance program for the poor, to pay for dental services delivered by teams of hygienists and dentists connected through the Internet.
California is among the first states to launch such teledentistry services, which are intended to increase the options for patients in remote and underserved areas. Other states, like Oregon, Colorado, Hawaii and West Virginia, are interested in creating their own teledentistry programs but are farther behind, advocates for the projects said.
The bill, signed by the governor over the weekend, also expands the types of procedures hygienists and certain assistants can perform without onsite supervision by a dentist — deciding what X-rays to take, for instance, or installing temporary fillings that help prevent decay. The hygienists and other workers will consult with a dentist remotely, sharing records online but will refer a person directly to a dentist if more sophisticated procedures are needed.
The legislation will take effect on Jan. 1.
Expanding teledentistry statewide will increase Medi-Cal costs minimally in the short-term — by upward of $500,000 a year, according to a State Assembly’s Appropriations Committee fiscal analysis. If teledentistry takes off, the costs could be higher.
Already, the Medi-Cal budget for dental services is slated to grow from $682 million to roughly $940 million by June 2015, thanks to legislation signed in June 2013 that brought back certain dental benefits for adults.
Dr. James Stephens, a Palo Alto dentist and president of the California Dental Association, said that teledentistry could save money down the line, however.
“That’s the real key. It’s a way of getting people who are outside the system into the system,” he said. “Preventive care costs so much less.”
The newly signed law is the culmination of years of work and research by hygienists, dentists and patient advocacy organizations across the state. About five years ago, Dr. Paul Glassman, a dentist at the University of the Pacific in San Francisco, started the pilot Virtual Dental Home Demonstration Project to show that teledentistry could provide a means to improve access at low costs.
“We’re very very excited. It’s a great ending to a long, long adventure here,” Glassman said. “The next challenge is to be able to spread this system.”
According to Glassman, as many as 50 percent of consumers eligible for dental services through Medi-Cal don’t get care. The idea is to deploy hygienists and dental assistants to schools, nursing homes and other community organizations where underserved populations gather. Glassman and other advocates say that will ease transportation, financial, language and cultural barriers that typically keep people from accessing treatment.
Telemedicine in general has been gaining traction, thanks in part to an increasing number of small Internet-enabled medical devices and consumer health trackers as well as growing interest among venture capitalists. The federal Affordable Care Act has emphasized the use of digital technologies to improve care and cut costs. Recently, a bill was introduced in the U.S. House of Representatives that would allow accountable care organizations to get reimbursed for and use telemedicine more widely.
“Technology has really allowed things that weren’t possible before,” said Shelly Gehshan, the director of the children’s dental policy team at the Pew Charitable Trust. “But it’s not like flipping a switch.”
Before the promise of teledentistry can be borne out, the state still has to figure out the billing mechanism and payment structure for telemedicine-enabled services. Glassman acknowledged this could be a topic of debate: Providers will want to bill at the same rates as for in-person consultations, while Medi-Cal might opt for lower rates to control costs.
Professional organizations still need to build programs to train hygienists and dental assistants on taking X-rays by themselves, applying temporary fillings, and working as part of a teledentistry team. The bill spells out the type of training that will be necessary.